They are more heavily doped than ordinary diodes, due to which they have narrow depletion region. A series resistor r is typically required to produce a voltage drop v z across the load. Zener diode circuit for psu with series transistor. The maximum power rating p z of the zener diode is 2w. The main use of zener diode lies in the fact that the voltage across a zener diode remains constant for a larger change in current. The diodes used as voltage regulators are called zener diodes. The breakdown region voltage of a zener diode is set by carefully controlling the doping level during manufacture. This makes it possible to use a zener diode as a constant voltage device or a voltage. Explain how normal diodes might be used as crude substitutes for a zener diode in the following circuit. A zener diode is one of the specially designed diodes that predominately works in reverse biased conditions. This manual was prepared to acquaint the engineer, the equipment. Because of this ability to reverse a portion of the current, zener diodes offer several advantages in a circuit that normal diodes dont.
Figure 2 shows the current versus voltage curve for a zener diode. Zener controlled transistor shunt voltage regulator the image below shows the circuit diagram of a shunt voltage regulator. The zener diode will continue in regulating the voltage till the zener diode current falls below the minimum i z min value in the reverse breakdown region. This circuit is known as a linear series voltage regulator because the. Zener diodes as voltage regulators a circuit diagram symbol for a zener diode. If the resistors are good, then zener diode is bad. In a dc circuit, zener diode can be used as a voltage regulator or to provide voltage reference.
Electronics tutorial about the zener diode and how the zener diode can be used with a series resistor to produce a zener diode voltage regulator circuit. Zener diode is a pn junction diode specially designed to operate in the reverse biased mode. There are several drawbacks, however, that will be discussed shortly. Placing a single 5v1 zener diode with a resistor is not a good idea. How to properly current limit the circuit, chose the correct zener. A zener diode is a diode that breaks down at a specific voltage when it is reverse biased. Since i didnt have a zener diode, i thought i would use a regular led in its place, but placed in forward bias so that it lights up. It will allow current to flow in a particular direction forward bias but it will prevent current to flow in the reverse direction reverse bias. Observe the nearly constant voltage in the breakdown region. Zener diode as voltage regulator tutorial electronicstutorials.
Recall, from the discussion of the diode characteristics curve,that when a diode reaches reverse breakdown, its voltage remains almost constant even through the current changes drastically, and this is the key to zener diode operation. When forward biased, it behaves like a normal signal diode, but when the reverse voltage is applied to it, the voltage remains constant for a wide range of currents. Zener diode operation please take note of the zener diodes orientation in the above circuit. Hbd854 zener theory and design considerations handbook. Series resistance must be maximum to protect the zener diode. Zener diode as a voltage regulator working principles. The very simple zener diode circuit providing the shunt regulator function as shown above is not particularly efficient and is not practicable for many higher current applications. Refer to the voltage reference circuit to set the resistance r 1. It is acting as normal diode while forward biasing. Career point cares zener diodes are a special kind of diode which permits current to flow in the forward direction. Zener diode is a general purpose diode, which behaves like a normal diode when forward biased.
The load voltage is 12 volts and draws a current of 300 milliamperes. As a result the free carriers acquire required kinetic energy to break the covalent. While regular diodes get damaged when the voltage across them exceeds the reverse breakdown voltage, zener diodes work exclusively in this region. Take care not to exceed the power rating of your series resistor. Calculate the e ective voltage and ripple voltage across the load. Thats not a voltage regulator, its just a voltage divider until the voltage drop across rl starts getting close to 0. If source voltage vs can vary from 20 volt to 30 volt,find the maximum and minimum current in the diode. Bd241 or bcp56, 1 or 2 resistor and 2 electrolytic and 2 ceramic caps. Please login if you have an account or else signup for free. Hello folks, im trying to lower the circuits voltage from 5 volts to 1. The fact that the voltage across the diode in the breakdown region is almost constant turns out to be an important application of the zener diode as a voltage regulator. Physics investigatory project on zener diode as a voltage. In this circuit diagram, the unregulated input voltage is v s, and the regulated output voltage across the load is v l, which is the same as that across the diode.
The zener diode compensates for the variation in load current. When the voltage across the terminals is reversed and the potential reaches the zener voltage or knee, the junction will break down and current will flow in the reverse direction a desired characteristic. Basics currentvoltage characteristic of a zener diode with a breakdown voltage of 17 volt. But when it is reverse biased above a certain voltage known as zener breakdown voltage or zener voltage or avalanche point or zener knee voltage the voltage remains constant for a wide range of current clarence zener is the scientist who discovered this electrical property and the device is named. Consists of a 5v6 zener 500mw or even smaller, a bd series npn transistor e. In this article, we are going to explain zener diode and its applications in detail. The stabilised output voltage is always selected to be the same as the breakdown voltage v z of the diode. Whats the difference between the voltage regulators and. A series resistancer is placed between a higher voltagev in and it is used to limit the current to the load and zener diode. The source voltage should be in a certain range which is acceptable for the connected pieces of equipment. Zener diodes are simple and useful devices for building voltage regulator circuits, but are times when you may have to improvise in the absence of the proper zener diode. If you ignore the fact im switching the 1wire on and off,, the upper 3. A zener diode versus a linear regulator for a 5 v 100 ma.
Calculate the peak voltage and ripple voltage across the recti er output lter capacitor. Also calculate the value of the series resistance r. I guess you already know that a diode acts as a oneway passage of electricity. Zener diode as a voltage regulator a voltage regulator is an electronic circuit that provides a stable dc voltage independent of the load current, temperature and ac line voltage variations. A voltage regulator is an electronic or electrical device that can sustain the voltage of power supply within suitable limits. In a zener diode voltage regulator circuit,the source series resistance rs 20 ohm. In this circuit, a typical voltage reference or regulator, an input voltage, uin. Zener diode definition a zener diode is a type of diode that permits current to flow in the forward direction like a normal diode, but also in the reverse direction if the voltage is larger than the breakdown voltage known as zener knee voltage or zener voltage. When i tested the circuit however, i realised the voltage drop across the led was less than 2v. Building a voltage regulator with an ideal zener diode, construction of a voltage regulator is easy, simply connect the diode between. The only way to tell which device has failed is to remove the resistors and check them with an ohmmeter. Zener diode as voltage regulator and its vi characteristics. A zener diode of break down voltage v z is reverse connected to an input voltage source v i across a load resistance r l and a series resistor r s. Design for an opamp voltage regulator circuit to drive a load of 6v,1.
The output voltage of regulator system is fixed as the zener knee voltage of the zener diode and can be used in power devices requiring a fixed voltage of firm value. As youve drawn it, the load is tied high side,in parallel with d1, and your circuit wont even start to regulate the voltage across the load until the supply gets to 700 volts or so, like this. Zener diode as a voltage regulator linkedin slideshare. The electrical equipment connected to the voltage source should bear the value of the voltage. A zener diode is a type of diode that allows current to flow in the conventional manner from its. This manual was prepared to acquaint the engineer, the. Zener diodes are manufactured with a great variety of zener voltages vz and some are even variable. Consequently, circuits using inboard zener diodes for over voltage. What one is not required for zener voltage regulator.
A zener diode is a type of diode that allows current to flow in the conventional manner from its anode to its cathode i. Zener diode as a voltage regulator zener diode is a silicon semiconductor with a pn junction that is specifically designed to work in the reverse biased condition. Zener diodes when we first talked about practical diodes, it was mentioned that a parameter associated with the diode in the reverse bias region was the breakdown voltage, v br, also known as the peakinverse voltage piv. The circuit consists of an npn transistor and a zener diode along with a series resistor rseries that is connected in series with the input supply. Zener diode is a reverse biased heavily doped semiconductor silicon or germanium pn junction diode, which is operated exclusively in the breakdown region. The zenor diode is used as a regulator to drop the voltage to 3. This breakdown voltage is known as the zener voltage. The zener diode working principles and its various.
The series resistor r provides a voltage drop and we. Characteristics figure 1 shows the current versus voltage curve for a 5. This simple zener diode circuit is widely used as an easy method of providing a voltage reference. But when it is reverse biased above a certain voltage known as zener breakdown voltage or zener voltage or avalanche point or zener knee voltage the voltage remains constant for a wide range of current clarence zener is the scientist who discovered this electrical property and the device is. Zener diodes are used in circuits to maintain a fixed voltage across a load. Zener diode, resistors, power supply, multi meter circuit diagram. In our previous articles, we explain in detail about diodes, pn junction diode, semiconductors etc. This arrangement of regulator circuit is referred to as a shunt. Exploiting this characteristic of zener diodes allows for simple, inexpensive voltage regulators. Unlike normal diodes, which allow only forward current, zener diodes will allow a current to move in reverse when voltage exceeds a specified value, preventing breakdown of the diode. Zener diode is a special kind of diode which permits the flow of current in the forward direction as well as in reverse direction when the voltage is above a certain voltage known as breakdown or zener voltage. Zener diodes are a modified form of pn silicon diode used extensively for voltage regulation.315 712 344 1627 1379 1486 1642 504 543 461 1304 1559 421 1495 1081 327 1010 1376 744 748 130 84 701 346 542 541 781 226 721 867 1225 390 1227 908 315